Page 8                                                  FAYETTEVILLE (ARK.) DEMOCRAT                         Tuesday, July 3,  1928



    First Settlers
         To This Section
                   Here in 1826-28

   Earliest settlements in Washington county and Fayetteville began in 1826-28 at Evansville and Cane Hill and extended in the same direction to Fayetteville. First families of the county included the Buchanans, Pyeatts, and Carnahans. James and Jacob Pyeatt in 1811 set out from Northern Alabama in company with James and Samuel Carnahan, sons of Rev. John Carna- han, embarking in flat-boats, and floated down the Tennessee, Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, worked their way to Crystal Hill, Arkansas. All were natives of Kentucky, from Tennessee and Virginia stock who had gone to Alabama to locate on Indian lands which they found not open.  As soon as Washington County was formed in 1827 they and their descendants removed to Cane Hill and their descendants since have been among the best people of Northwestern Arkansas. The Buchanans were from Tennessee.  There were six brothers,
John, Andrew, Robert, James, Alexander and Isaac.
   The Billingsleys, together with
Charles Adams, and Samuel Williams came from Tennessee to Arkansas Post in 1814 and in 1816 located on Big Mulberry.  Two years later they moved to Fort Smith and in 1828 came to Washington County.
   Other first influential families included those of: Robert, Aaron and Joel Park who lived in 1828 on the Fayetteville Road not far from White Church; William Woody, Hay Crawford, William Maxwell, Henry F. Campbell, William Wri- ght, Isaac Spencer, Levi Richards, James Mitchell, A.Whinnery, Charles McClellan, Joseph and Benjamin Garvin.
   In 1831 L. C. Blakemore came from
Sumner County, Tenn., and located in Fayetteville. Early settlers included also G. A. Pettigrew, Jossiah Trent, David Reese, Ralph Skelton, John Hart. John Conner, a Georgian, in 1827 came to this section. He found John Alexander,
James Simpson, Hugh Shannon and John and William McGarrah. His daughter married A. W. Arrington and with her husband taught the first school in Fayetteville.
Cherokees Here 1806;
    In 1828 Yield Land
          For "Lovely County"

   As early as 1806 Cherokee Indians were living in the White River section of Washington County, Arkansas. It is said they usually camped on the "elevation south of Fayetteville which was then destitute of trees, on an iso- lated hill that commanded a view for miles, where they were protected from attack from their old enemies, the Osages.*"
   The first Indian treaty was made
and concluded on November 10,
1808 between Pierre Choteau, agent for the Osages, and Big and Little Osage chiefs of Fort Clark, in the then Territory of Louisiana.
   By treaty in 1828 the Cherokees
exchanged this territory occupied by them between White River and the Arkansas (now Washington county) for that west of the present state line, the part lost by them embracing the greater part of Lovely County (Washington County) which by force of the treaty was abolished.
Frank Pierce First White Man
  The first recorded explorer to this
section was Frank Pierce who in
1819 came up White River trapping and hunting. Reaching West Fork he ascended that stream to within two miles of Fayetteville where he discov- ered buffalo.  In attempting to shoot one of these for meat he saw a band of Indians. He lowered his gun without firing, dropped under the bank and retired for the night under friendly shelter of a large elm. In 1828 he came back and settled near the place where nine years before he had spent the night in hiding.
*Goodspeeds History of Washington County, Ark.


      Washington County,
    of 569,600 Acres, Is
     Richest in the State

    Washington County embraces 27
townships and an area of 569,600
acres, divided almost equally into
valleys, plateaux and inclined surfaces or terraces.
   Its land is considered the richest
in the state and its crops the most
   An idea of the general surface may be gained by considering the county to have once been a rolling plateau with, for its southeastern, eastern and western margins, the Boston Mountains and their several branches; then allowing Fayetteville's region to be the highest
point, with gentle slopes of the county to the northwest and northeast, you have White River on the east and the Illinois River on the west, both with a bewildering network of tributaries washing out among the plateaus, the terraces and valleys, giving somewhat 'islanded' appearance.
    1731 Feet Above the Sea
   What is known as the East
Heights at Fayetteville has an altitude of 1731 feet above sea level while some valleys probably are not more than 1000 feet above the sea.
  Drainage is even and streams are
fed almost entirely from splendid
springs which burst from the mountain ledges in some cases affording excel-
lent water power at their source.
  Cherty barren limestone and black
shale are found in quantity, but all
structures have been discovered, in
geology, few regions anywhere show- ing the diversity observed in Washing- ton County, believed by scientists to be the site-with per- haps one exception-of the oldest mountains in the world.
         Has Many Minerals
   A great variety of mineral resources, result of early igneous disturbances give to the strata of Washington county, its dips.
   It is estimated that 60 percent of
the whole area is timber land leading woods being white oak, hickory, red oak, post oak, walnut, ash, elder, elm, dog-wood, locust and maple.
   At Fayetteville natural gas has been found in three different places and noted as early as 1889 at depth of from 90 to 225 feet.
   Coal is plentiful although this has
not been developed.
   Agricultural products are corn,
wheat, grasses, clover, oats, potatoes, sorghum and tobacco. Cotton grows well but is seldom planted as the ground is more valuable for other crops. Horticulturally, the county is particularly striking, producing apples that have taken first premiums at world fairs wherever exhibited, peaches, grapes, pears, plums, cherries, berries and other small fruit. Onions, cabbage, turnips and tomatoes are shipped. Lately acreage of green peas for can-ning and shipping have been planted.
   Poultry, eggs, livestock bring in
wealth annually. In 1889 there were 150,477 acres of public land in the county, 80,000 of this being govern- ment land; assessed value of all lands taxed was $2,662,309; total assessed value of real estate and personal pro-perty, $4,098,626 .22; total revenue collected in the county in 1887 was $78,029.16.
   Today total assessed value of real
and personal property is $13,359,-
779; total assessed value of lands is $5,123,575 and total taxes collected in the county, $430,785 .76.
Homespun over 100 years old made by Mrs. Mary Skelton, mother of Mrs. Polly Skelton Logan, is on display here.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
* First Six White Men                 *
* In Washington County              *
* John Alexander.                       *
* Two McGarrahs.                     *
* Two Simpsons                         *
* One Shannon                           *
* In 1826, before the treaty was  *
* made giving white people the    *
* right to settle in what is now      *
* Washington County, the above *
* with their families moved here.  *
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
   The only portrait of Albert Pike
painted when he was in his 40ties,
and work of Edwin P. Washburn,
is owned by Miss Sue Walker of
this place.


                    10,000 Farmers
                              A Year Visitors
                                          At Agri Station
                                           By Kenneth Roy

  "The Agricultural Experiment Station of the Arkansas Industrial University was established by the vote of trustees in accordance with the provisions of the Act of Congress, approved March 3, 1887, generally known as the Hatch bill. . . . This sum ($15,000) will be expended in making such experiments and investigations as may be deemed best adapted to render practical and efficient aid to the farmers of the State in the pursuit of their calling," so reads the announcement of the establishment of the Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Arkansas, College of Agriculture, in the first official bulletin, No. 1, published that year. This publication also contained two reports of experimental work relative to fertilizers for corn and cotton.
                               50 Years Devoted to Research
   March 3, 1928, marked the station's 41st birthday-nearly a half century devoted to research work in the interest of Arkansas agriculture. Since its establishment there have been 227 bulletins published, reports of experimental findings.
   The first experimental building now houses the music department of the University. The building in which the agricultural education work now is carried, was the first director's office. The officers of the station in 1887 were: Albert E. Menke, director; S. S. Twombly, chemist,  and F. W. Simonds, biologist. The board of control consisted of Hon. J. Keesee, Hon. C. M. Taylor, and Hon. W. F. Avera. The first experiment station farm was north
and west of the present campus. The new ball diamond now occupies a part of the old farm, which consisted of some 80 acres. This was used for stock as well as field experimental work. Some leased land was used from time to time whenever experimental work demanded greater acreage.
                                    Farm Purchased In 1919
  In 1919, 423 acres were purchased for the experimental farm, two miles north of the University, and the work which formerly was carried on north of the campus was transferred, in most part, to the new location. This station, to which was added another 100 acres three years ago, is now one of Fayette-ville's show places, and is one of the finest experiment station farms in the middle west.
   During the past four years 10 laborer's cottages, one horse barn, one tool shed, one packing shed and one sheep barn have been built. A new dairy barn is now nearing completion. In addition to this building program is the establish-ment of a water system over the farm, as well as an extensive plan of land-scaping. A gravel highway completed two years ago had made the station
easily accessible.
                 Experiments Carried On By Three Departments
Experimental work and investigations are carried on at the farm by the depart-
ments of agronomy, horticulture and animal industry, under the direction of the department heads, Professors Martin Nelson, J. R. Cooper, and H. E. Dvorachek. Some of the experimental projects now in progress at the farm are:
Fertilizers for bearing orchards, effects of fertilizers on apple and peach trees and grapes, fertilizers for Irish and sweet potatoes, economic beef production study, investigation of rice by-products for laying hens, alfalfa hay versus mung
bean hay for dairy heifers, legumes for brood sows, forage crops for growing and fattening swine, effects of legumes on succeeding crops, study of the various forms of nitrogen, dates of planting corn, corn breeding, pasture and meadow crops, oat production.
   The departments of entomology and plant pathology also have orchards and fields at the station for experimental work relative to insect and plant disease.
   It is closely estimated that 10,000 farmers from all parts of the state visited the experimental station during the past 12 months. During Farmers' Week--July 31, August 1, 2 and 3, conducted tours of the farm will be made early each morning.
                        Wild Honey First Fayetteville "Sugar"
Wild honey was used in place of sugar by the first settlers who lived in Fayett-eville. When coffee first appeared, "We tried to eat it like you do beans" related "Uncle An" Fitzgerald in writings of 1889.


            First Centennial
                         of Arkansas 1906
                                               or was it 1919?

  All territory embraced in the State of Arkansas was included in the
Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803, having previously belonged to Spain. It was formerly transferred to the United States by France in March, 1804, and called "New Madrid" until 1806, when the district of Arkansas was created (making 1906 Arkansas' first "Centennial") only to be abolished the following year and to be called a part of New Madrid.
                           Arkansas Created a County in 1813
   December 13, 1813, the County of Arkansas was created by the Territorial Assembly, this later to be divided into three-Arkansas, Clark and Pulaski. The Territory of Arkansas was established by  Congress March 2, 1819, which is the reason for some historians recording 1919 Arkansas' Centennial.
                      Washington (First Lovely) Created
                                            in 1827

The first assembly of the Territory was held at Arkansas Post in1820.
During the session of October, 1827, Lovely county, later FINISH ---


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