Page 9                                                       FAYETTEVILLE (ARK.) DEMOCRAT                         Tuesday, July 3,  1928



   Mark Bean, Tiller
      Old Settler. Once
            Owner of Lincoln

When Arkansas Territory was a
vagueness, when Little Rock was no more than a village though it had
been chosen for the sate capital and
when the boundaries of counties
spread over great areas, there was a man from this part of the country
whose hardy proportions were a
match for the demands of the time.
  This man was Mark Bean, one of
the real pioneers, who was not only
a tiller of the soil, a merchant, and
manufacturer, but as duty beckon-ed was statesman too. Those days produced men of heroic propor-tions, men who single-handed sought Nature face to face and forced her to yield what in propor-tion would be the fruits of giants of industry today.
   The man remains an actual per-
sonality here through his relation-
ship with Dr. J. L. Bean, who lives
here now, a nephew of the pioneer.
It was from here, too--or this local-
ity--that he went as legislator for
three terms (1833, 1842 1844) representing Washington county, which included what now is Ben- ton, Carroll and Madison counties as well. Earlier than that, in 1827, he had been chosen to represent Crawford county--the county then swept from the Arkansas river nearly to Missouri, and westward from the Petit Jean to include a great portion of old eastern Indian Territory--in the councils of state in the newly-selected state capital.
   When he represented Crawford
county there were nine men in the house of representatives. Ambrose Sevier was speaker. In another
room of the old shell of a building on Main and Scott streets, Little Rock, were 13 councilmen--senators now--helping to hold the reins of state.
   It was in 1832 that Bean, the pio-
neer, after having gone first into the Rhea Mill country a few miles east of here, moved to the site now known as Lincoln Park, in this county, about 20 miles east of Fayetteville.
   Here, not content to clear a few
acres of land as so many of his fel-
low settlers were doing, he laid his
axe on the heart of forest and brake
until he was surrounded by a verita-
ble estate. He built a spring house,
part of which still is standing, about
the largest spring, and further down
the incline he put up an overshot-
wheel water-power mill and instal- led carding and spinning machinery and looms for weaving.
   He began making money. He was
apparently one of the sort who could not keep from making mon- ey. He had his slaves, as thousands of other people did; and after he had brought cotton across the mountains to his mills, spun it, wea- ved it, baled the cloth, freighted it to his boats on the Illinois, floated it down to the Arkansas river at Van Buren and thence by steamboat to New Orleans, he bought other slaves with the proceeds. He ac- quired a plantation near Ozark and there raised more cotton for his mills.
   "Lovely County" this then was
called. Mark Bean, an integral part
of the country, became more deep-ly a part of it as he bought more and more lands in the neighborhood of his mills, until he had a thousand
acres over which he could look from the highest hill.
   He turned his tireless energy,
presently, to other enterprises. He
treated with the government at
Washington and for a considera-
tion received treaty rights to Saline Springs in what is now Adair county, Oklahoma, then Cherokee land. In partnership with a brother, Richard, he established the Mark Bean Salt Works; and the broad stream of the Grand river was an agent for the transportation of the salt to the Arkansas and other water highways to New Orleans. These cargoes, as well as the pro- ducts of his mills, rode duty free most of the way, and with the hand -some profits more slaves were added to the business genius' possessions.
  Even threatened disaster when the
tide of good fortune seemed about to turn against him did not dismay
Mark Bean. When the Cherokee
Grant lines were run, it was discov-
ered that many of the pioneers were living on the Cherokee lands. Bean Bros.' Salt Works, as one of the trespassers, was confiscated. The brothers hotly filed a suit for $30,000 against the government, and in a compromise received $15,000. Richard Bean went to Texas, but Mark Bean kept on in his mill, making jeans and lindseys for the Cherokees and whites. It is said that that he all but clothed the Cherokee tribe for years. Dr. Bean says he has talked to many old Indians who remembered wear-
ing clothes from products of Bean's mill.
   That was not the only conflict


   The Logan family of Fayetteville,
of six generations, dates back to the
Vernons of Virginia, for whom
Mount Vernon, ancestral Wash-ington estate, was named.

Articles continued on next page




  Days of Town Crier,
     Town Lot Sale Days
        Episode in Pageant

  The establishment of the county seat from the town crier to the sale of lots will be depicted in the sec-ond episode of the historical page-ant of Fayetteville, according to a sketch and cast of characters for the episode announced by E. M. Ratliff, who is chairman for the episode.
   The episode brings in the town
crier, whose part will be taken by
George Barnes; the auctioneer,
H. L. Pearson; four commissioners,
Dr. B. F. McAllister, G. C. Hurst,
W. F Dunn and J. D. Eagle, and
two surveyors, W. C. Smith and
E. M. Ratliff.
  The drama will follow as closely as possible the actual events depic-ted, which covered a period of years and were on a larger scale than is possible in the area of the stage.
  Although records seem somewhat
contradictory as to the events in
question, it seems certain that the
work was done by four com-missioners to establish the county seat. These were Lewis Evans, Larkin Newton, Samuel Vaughn and John Woody.
   "The survey was made," says the
History of Northwest Arkansas, "by Charles McClelland, then deputy county surveyor, who was assisted by John Smallman, James Parr, William McGarrah and A. Mankins, as chain bearers. Lots were sold chiefly by public auction, A Whinnery being the auctioneer. Up to 1837 sale of lots totalled $6,339.
   "Abe" Lincoln Letter
      Asking Postmastership
            With Arkansan, Shown

   A letter written by Abraham Lin-
coln to former Governor Meade Fishback asking him to form a law partnership with him is on display at
the Fayetteville Centennial Museum.


Mark Bean had over lands. During
the conflict of Osage and Cherokee
grants of lands over the extent of
the Lovely Purchase from the Osage, it was found that Bean, with other settlers (John Alexander, a man named Shannon, George and William McGarrah and two Simp-sons), were living on lands within the Lovely Purchase. So by order of the government at Washington, the "squatters" were evicted; and evicted they were by men from the command of Zachery Taylor at Fort Gibson, near what is now Muskogee, Oklahoma.
   Most of the seven "squatters" re-
turned to their homes and their
ruined crops after the evicting party
had gone back to Fort Gibson, but
Mark Bean and his family went in-
to what is now Franklin county, near Ozark, buying land on the Arkansas.
This was the plantation where he
grew cotton that later went into his
mill. He was sent to the legislature
first from his new home.
   But after "Lovely" county was
discovered to be mostly in Okla- homa, and the present boundary of Arkansas was fixed and Washington county created (and probably Mark Bean had no small part in these "findings,) the pioneer came back to the place he still considered his home.
   Set apart as a leader, Bean, even
if he had wanted to do so, was not
permitted to drop back into a life
lived just for himself, but was stam-ped as the person to look after the needs of this part of the country
in the new, stiff, governmental ma-
chine. He had made tracks where
others could follow; and when the
followers came within sight of him,
they gestured to him to keep on

   Her Family Represents
       100 Yrs. Local History

Mrs. Bettie McGarrah Reed of El-
kins, who claims John Bunyan as an
ancestor, is daughter of Fayette-
ville's first resident, William Mc-Garrah. Her family and its various
branches running into five genera-
tions is the only one yet recorded
with the Centennial writers that rep-
resents 100 years and over of county history.

      March the 27, 1871
            Outstanding Date In
                    University History

The most important event in the edu-
cational history of Arkansas, of
Washington county, and of Fayette-
ville, was an act of the Legislature
approved March 27, 1871, entitled
"An act for the location, organization and maintainence of the Arkansas Industrial University (later the Uni-versity of Arkansas) with a Normal Department therein."
   Bidders for the location included:
Fayetteville and Washington County,
$130,000 (plus interest for 30 years,
making total of nearly half million);
Batesville, $50,000; A. P. Robinson of Conway who offered a quarter section of land, and Hon. Liberty Bartlett who offered 92 acres of Pulaski county land but whose sec-tion did not raise the necessary cash.
   In 1872 the board, consisting of
Hon. Thomas Smith and Trustees
Bennet, Cohn, Prather, Botefuhr,
Bishop, Searle, Young, Clayton, Sarber and Millen, sent a committee to visit the universities of Illinois and
   Washing county's offer was acc-epted, a Mr. Van Odell of Chicago,
who had erected the Illinois institut- tion, was architect chosen, and work
was begun on a 160 acre site dona- ted by the county and purchased from William McIlroy for $12,000 of which $1,000 was raised by citi- zens of Fayetteville, largest sub-scribers being Lafayette Gregg and David Walker. Contract was let to Meyers and Oliver for $130,000. Work was begun in September 1873.
   The period of 1861-67 is re-corded in history as "practically a blank, educationally, in Washington county" because of the Civil War which had made of the section one of broken homes, harassed mothers left alone to care for their families of little children, devastated fields, burned homes,schools and churches, villages and towns. Ruins were everywhere, where once had been fruits of years of labor, love and care.
   The people, with their wealth con-
fiscated, their homes destroyed, their
fields uncared for, found themselves
in almost worst plight than penniless
pioneers in a new country, and time
was needed for them to recuperate
their exhausted energies andfinances.
Once wealthy families turned to lab-
or of any kind, their wealth being all
swept away. Slaves were free and
negroes had to be considered a
part of the population to be housed
and fed.
  While public schools were agitated,
the state was impoverished by the war and the black days of the Re-
construction period when so many
indignities were heaped upon the
South. There was a tendency among
the aristocracy to cling to private
schools. But finally, on June 23, 1863, there was approved an act of
the State Legislature entitled "An Act to establish and maintain a sys-
tem of free common schools for the
State of Arkansas.

First Four Women Graduates
    To Receive Degrees in City;
    One, First Teacher's Daughter

Annette Arrington Allen, Clementine
Watson Boles, Rebecca Stirman
Davidson and Salina Marshall Martin
                (Class of 1860)

 Sarah Conner (Arrington), daughter
of John Conner and late wife of Judge Alfred W. Arrington of a varied fame, was so far as is know, the first school teacher in Fayetteville, having taught, records show, in 1833.
   Her daughter, Annette Arrington
Allen, was one of the four first women college graduates of Arkansas
the three other young ladies being:
Clementine Watson (Boles), Rebecca Stirman (Davidson) and Salina Marshall (Martin), all daughters of pioneer families.
    Degrees were given by the Fay-
etteville Female Institute, one of the
nine colleges granted charters by the
state of Arkansas before the Civil
War and itself chartered December,

      Story of Sequoyah
         Inventor of Alphabet,
              Dates Back to 1815

The story of how Mount Sequoyah, seat of the Southern Methodist encampment on the eastern edge of Fayetteville, gain-ed its name forms one of the most inter-esting bits of early legendry abounding in Washington county and Northwest Ark-ansas.
   History records the fact that some time between 1815 and 1822, Sequoyah, originator of the Indian alphabet and chief of the Cherokees, crossed the Mississippi with his tribe and migrated to Indian territory, now part of Oklahoma, stopping for about two years in Arkan- sas, then a territory. Old-timers and local historians stoutly affirm that a greater part of these two years was spent on the mountain now known by the name of the chief. If this is true, and there are a num-ber of proofs to bear it out, it was on the Washington county mountain that Sequo-yah formulated the Cherokee written alphabet, the only one ever written by an American, for it was in 1821 that the alphabet was completed. Containing 86 characters, it was said to be so simple that even the most illiterate person had no difficulty in learning to read and write in a short time. Letters of the Roman alphabet were used, although Sequoyah himself could neither read nor write English.
   Born of a Cherokee squaw and a
German trader, his English name was George Guess, Sequoyah meaning in the language of the Cherokees "Guessed It." After entering Oklahoma with his people, he became one of the leaders in building up friendship between the red and white races, and so great was his service that when Oklahoma was called upon in 1917 to place in Statuary Hall in the capitol at Washington a statue of her most prominent pioneer, Sequoyah, chief of the Cherokees, was the man selected without a dissenting murmer. So sturdy  and upright was his character said to be that the giant redwoods of California were named "Sequoias" in his honor.

   Revolutionary Grave
        of '29 Resident Marked;
               Mountain Inn Hut Site

   Marking the grave of James Leeper, Revolutionary soldier and one of Fay-etteville's early settlers, will be an impres- sive ceremony witnessed July Fourth by the public during the Centennial.
   Mr. Leeper came to Fayetteville from Tennessee in 1829 and built a small log farm house which is known as the old Leeper place, now owned by Ellis Dun-can. It is on this land that the family cemetery stands which contains the soldiers grave where the tablet is to be placed.

    Longest-Lived Citizen
          Hale and Hearty at 111
               Comes to See First Train

   "Uncle Peter" Mankins was a pioneer of Washington county and one of the longest lived of the section's citizens. Exact date of his death is not known but he was photographed on June 8, 1881, at the age of 111 years. On July 4, 1881, he came to town to see the first train that ever entered Fayetteville. The photograph was lent from the collection of Hugh Reagan.

   While to this institution goes the honor of having conferred first degrees upon young women, to Arkansas College, also a Fayetteville institution, goes the honor of having conferred the very first degrees awarded to any college in the state. Site of this college will be marked with suitable ceremony July 5 as a part of Fayetteville Centennial proceedings.

First Degrees in State Presented
                    July 4, 1854

   First graduating class numbered
seven, all young men, as follows:
John M. Pettigrew, William M. Cravens, Elias R. DuVal, Robert B. Rutherford, Mark Evans, Arkansas Wilson and John Wilson. Their diplomas, prized now as the first ever presented to any one in Arkansas, were conferred July 4, 1854.
   Mrs. Arrington, mother of one of
the first four girl graduates, was a brilliant woman of literary attainments.
   Annette inherited considerable genius both from her father and her mother. Her father, a resident of Fayetteville and a Methodist minister here in 1833--4, was admitted to the bar, "his speeches combining chaste and elaborate rhetoric with a just and fascinating logic, or when
he chose to deal in phillipic, turning on his adversary a cataract of fire," according to Hallum's history.
   A friend of Albert Pike, Sargeant
Prestiss, Chester Ashley and JohnTaylor, as a writer of fancy sketches of trials of these celebrities he won a national fame. He was a Whig elector in 1844, a circuit judge in Texas, and later a lawyer in Chicago he was claimed by a member of the supreme bench.


Page 10


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