| County Has Nine
By Corinne Hodges
Early settlers in this county brought with them the desire for
higher educa-tion. For a long time,
however, there were private schools
only. There was no money to maintain public schools, and the country
was sparsely settled. Teachers
took "scholars" for $1 a month, and
boarded "around" with patrons.
Often they paid in meat, pork, sugar
coffee, or other produce.
Prior to the Civil War there were
no high schools or universities, but
nine colleges were chartered in Wash-
ington county during that time,
the first being the Fayetteville Female Semi-
nary, chartered October 27,
Two colleges were founded in the
county in 1852; Arkansas College at
Fayetteville was granted a charter on
December 14, and Cane Hill College on the following day. The former college functioned for ten years,
until its buildings were burned during
the Civil War.
By the Land Grant act the state
was allowed land for an Agricultural
and Mechanical school. Fayetteville,
with the assistance of Washington
county, made the highest bid for the
University, and the board of direct-
ors decided that it should be perman-ently located here.
It was necessary, however, to open
the University within a certain time
in order to obtain the Land Grant
from the government. The committee found no buildings on the ground
selected for the University site
suit-able for school buildings. Accordingly, they remodeled a six-room
residence, and rented a two-story
frame building for temporary use.
Arkansas Industrial University, as
it was then called, open-ed in 1872.
The present Main hall at the Uni-
versity of Arkansas, a four-story
structure, was erected in the same
year, modeled after the University
of Illinois, after a committee had
been sent to that school to investigate con-ditions there.
Brick for the construction was ob-
tained by digging out clay from back
back of where the building now
stands, and baking it into bricks
with fuel cut from forests around
the grou- nds. The stone for the
foundation was quarried from the
campus, while the white trim is
stone hauled in from Mt. Comfort.
The four tall white pillars, which
give the entrance a distictive ap-
pearance, were brought from Brush
creek. It took several weeks to trans-
port them here, as the roads
were almost impassable and White
river had to be forded twice.
Sixty six years ago Senator R. J.
Wilson of Fayetteville, who has served
in the state legislature longer
than any other man, plowed the
land on which the Main building now
stands. Ten years later he cast his
first vote to establish the University
at Fayetteville. In 1901 he took part
in the transaction which cleared the
debt of $462,000 which the city of
Fayetteville and Washington county
incurred to obtain the University.
Not "Lovely" Now
But Lovely Still
By Angie Madge Kieth
"Washington county was once
Lovely county, it is now, for that
matter," smilingly said Bob Wilson,
resident of Fayetteville for 77 years,
as he sat rocking in a chair on the ver-
andah of his Colonial home.
A large tract of land extending to
Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, was bought
from the Indians by John and William Lovely, early in 1800. This became known as the Lovely purchase
and later as Lovely county. In 1826,
when squatters could settle the land
here, a small log cabin court house,
clerk's office, jail, store, and several
cabins were built near the spot
where the court house now stands.
This was known, in the Virginia
style, as Wash-ington Court House,
the name of the entire settlement.
Since another town was already
called Washington, Arkansas, the
postmaster general asked that the
name be changed for a great deal of
confusion was caused over the mail.
Three or four men, who had the title
to this land, including Bob Wilson's
father, had been residents of Fayette-
ville, Tennessee. Thus they agreed to
name this new town after their home and it was changed to Fayetteville, Arkansas.
Several years later, the large tract
of land known as Lovely county or
Lovely purchase was cut into two
parts, one in Oklahoma and the other
now known as Washington county.
are continued on page12a
|| Aged "Pickaninny
Seventy years ago a Fayetteville bride counted among her wedding
gifts a very small and very happy pickaninny who answered to the
name of Adeline. Today, still happy, her mind keenly alert, Adeline
serves the granddaughter of that same bride. Her memory goes back to
the turbulent days of the Civil War. She laughs heartily as she recalls
one partic-ular incident: A battle was being fought not more than a city
block from her home. For safety, she, still a small child, and the
little daughter of her mistress were placed in wash tubs in a
water-filled cellar. While the battle raged over the hill, the two
children bobbled happily
about on their private ocean.
And then Adeline remembers the stu-
dents who came to the University of Arkansas when it was a very young
and very small institution. She remembers the pranks they played and how
they looked on drill days when they donned their blue uniforms with the
long frock-tail coats.
"Of course the boys played pranks"
said Adeline. "They were just as lively in those days as they are
now. And they didn't think of things like having freshmen wear green
At Profit Sharing
By Stephen A.
The first attempt at profit-sharing for employees in Washington county
ted in a slave uprising, says Mrs. Nora Carlisle of Fayetteville, who
relates the story of the rebellion in the spring of 1857 that culminated
in the murder of her great-grandfather, James Boone, and a stirring day
preceding the lynching
of the negroes.
The first brick house in the valley
where the town of Elkins now is sit-
uated was the home of James Boone.
A widower, with his three sons grown
up and gone away, Boone owned a
farm extending through the entire valley which required a large number
of negro slaves. Being already wealthy and de- siring to better the
condition of his slaves, Boone offered to give them all the proceeds of
the farm and retain only the power of management.
In organizing his farm anew, he
appointed one of his most trusted re-
tainers as an overseer and gave the
negro a horse on which to make the
rounds of the fields. It is this appoint-ment, Mrs. Carlisle believes,
that caused jealousy to spring up among the other hands who believed
that the overseer was obtaining more than his share of the earnings.
Early one morning the negro house-
keeper, going to awaken her her master, found him stretched unconscious
near the door of his room.
On the floor outside the door were
three hickory clubs with which Boone
had been beaten during the night. He lived 'till the afternoon of the
next day but never regained consciousness.
A son residing at Neosho, Mo., was
sent for through a slave messenger on horseback. While this slave was
gone, a suspicion arose that he might have had a hand in the crime and
so another slave was dispatched to have him arrested. The trailing slave
met the suspect and the son, who were returning to the Ozarks. On
arrival at the homestead the suspect was placed along with the other two
ringleaders in a small room at the top of the house, and the door
guarded day and night.
The jailors declared one evening that, "we'll just go away and let
them starve," and then imitated departing footsteps but remained quietly
outside. During the night the negroes became restless and talked of the
crime. The listeners ob- tained sufficient evidence from the
conversation to satisfy themselves that the slaves were guilty and later
them to the jail at Fayetteville.
Fayetteville the next day was the scene of a milling mob
which congre-gated on the dirt streets and clustered in little knots
about the jail steps. As the afternoon passed, speeches became more
fiery and the climax was reached when on of the Boones jumped on the
courthouse steps and shouted: "Procrastination is the thief of time; I
say hang them now!" The willing mob swar- med through the jail and
brought the negroes out. One of them was returned
to his cell because he was the property of a neighbor of the murdered
Down to the old Governor Yell man-
sion at the end of sough College avenue the party took its was, and
there to one of the big trees which are still standing, the two Boone
slaves were hanged for their part in the murder. The Williams negro was
later tried and hanged.
||Recalls Student Duel and
But they did dye one boy's hair a
Snipe hunting was extremely popular in the early days, and many a
freshman was left "holding the sack" for hours.
Once two students had a duel. The
quarrel was trivial, but since one boy
was much larger than the other, they
could not settle it by a first-fight. So the little fellow challenged
the big one to a duel. Seconds were chosen, and a spot on Mount Nord
selected for the event. The hour arrived and with it the two students
and their seconds. They took their distance and, at a signal, fired. The
first shots hit neither combatant.
They fired again with the same results. And then they discovered that
the guns were loaded with blank cartridges! Whereupon they both laughed,
shook hands, and went home.
Because the president of the Univer-
sity had displeased them, some stu-dents took away the foot bridge
across a small creek which ran through pres-ent-day Shulertown. Absorbed
in deep thought, "prexy" stepped where the bridge should have been and
landed where Adeline says he had no business!
Fifty Cents Buys
From "Uncle Sam"
By Johnny Erp
Fifty cents was the purchase price
of land here which was formerly used as the "happy hunting ground" for
Indians less than a century ago.Today, that same land, the village
square, is the "happy hunting grounds" for metropol-itan house-wives who
seek anything from rolling pins to electric washing machines.
Long before Fayetteville was destin-ed to become the "Athens of the
Ozarks," Redskins, the first known settlers here, stalked about the
thickly wooded section before it took on the semblance of civilization.
Today, those same paths which have been paved over, are trodden by
University of Arkansas students, who have flocked here from the four
directions to get their higher learning in the Ozark hills.
Fayetteville, unlike most small cities, does not have the usual
courthouse site in the center of the block but instead has its
postoffice located there. Origin-ally, the halls of justice for
Washington county were there, but as time decayed the ram-shackle
building, the site was
changed. In 1907, Washington coun-
ty deeded this plot of land back to the United States government for the
lump sum of half-a-dollar.
Today the rank and file, the farmer and the shop-keeper, the
merchant and the inn-keeper, the proletariat and the plebian rub elbows
together on a com- mon ground.
Business houses have been erected
on all sides; Wallace Brothers were
said to have been the pioneer settlers there. Theirs was a combination
store catering mostly to the farmers, who flocked in from the western
part of the county.
It is estimated by W. S. Campbell,
author of "100 Years of Fayetteville," a book which is to be released
for the Centennial celebration, that approx-imately 40 people have been
killed within the four sides of this memorable grounds during the last
Formerly where hitching posts and
watering troughs stood now stand
blaring red and white barber poles,
modern electric lights and "no parking" signs.
Girl Student Tells
of Pranks of 1882
By Mary Shauman
Mrs. F. E. Martin was the second
woman to enroll in the Arkansas In-
dustrial University. I found her in a little old house on Leverett
street living quite alone--save, of course, for her mem-ories. The
house, a design of bygone years, is set quite back from the busy street
as if avoiding the rush and clam-or.
Mrs. Martin entered the University in 1882, while G. P. Gates was
president. There were no freshmen but quite a large number of Indians.
Dances were held once a week in the long hall of the main building, then
frame. They were most pointedly chaperoned and spon-sored by the
With the succession of Bishop as
president a new rule was made, and
Mrs. Martin smiled at the recollection. All men had to be in the
dormitory by a certain hour. But it seems this rule was not so
rigorously kept and so to catch the offenders President Bishop hid under
a bridge in Shuler town. As the culprits came along he caught the tail
of the coat of one, only to find himself
hurled from the bridge, the ineffective coat tail in his hand.
|| Looking Back 100
By Wendell Polk
George McGarrah moved to this
state and pitched his tent. There were three sons accompanying him,
James, John, and William.
One of the brothers, known about the country as "Pete," opened a
Creation of Washington county by the action of territorial
legislature. The county originally included almost three times as much
land as it does at pres- sent.
Treaty with the Cherokee Indians whereby they were to move further
west and allow the whites to settle in this section of the country.
The first court was held in 1829
at the McGarrah home.
The first postoffice was founded
here August 1829, but there were
really no post roads as yet. Figures for the receipts of the first year
are not available but in the second year the total was $12.18. Last year
the receipts amounted to $66,219.83.
Frank Pierce, sighting a herd of buffalo, fired upon them and gave
him- self away to a band of Indians. The Indians pursued him but he
eluded them and camped on West Fork. He liked the country and settled
Election of 1828 in which Jackson
triumphed over Adams.
Origin of Nullification by South Car-
olina in the fight over the tariff is 1828.
The beginning of the quarrel over state's rights which was an issue
in the election of 1828.
The personality of a vivacious young drug store clerk, Fred Shuler was
the dynamic force which caused the grow-th and prosperity of the section
of Fay-etteville now popularly known as Shulertown. The expression
"Come, let's go see Shuler," so well known to University of Arkansas
students of 30 years ago, has been replaced by Let's go down to
Shulertown," probably the most used sentence on the University Campus
Forty-seven years ago when the
campus of the state university was
enclosed by a rail fence and there
were no paved streets nor sidewalks
in the city, a general merchandise
store was opened on Dickson street
by A. B. Lewis. This was the first
business house in what is now known
as Shulertown. As the enrollment of the university increased and
after the men's dormitory had been built, sever-
al more small business houses were constructed in this section of town.
One of these houses was a drug
store owned by A. C. McAdams who
now owns one of the best drug stores
in the city. This store was located
where Bates Brothers' grocery store
now stands. In 1898 Mr. McAdams'
business had so grown that he employ-
ed Fred Shuler as clerk and manager. Shuler soon became a favorite with
the university students and, although he has now been away from
Fayetteville for more than 18 years, the business dis-trict on Dickson
street is still known as Shulertown.
"Shuler" is plainly and outgrowth of the university. It now means
more than a purchasing center for students. It means "Shulertown--where
good fellows get together."
They look Alike
It was away back about 1828 that
William and John McGarrah settled
at what was to become Fayetteville
and William opened the first store
that was ever opened here. It was
a crude log building but it supplied
the needs of the sparsely settled
William could neither read nor write
but he wanted to do a credit business
and so he employed Dave Walker,
who was later to become judge of the state supreme court, and who also
was the grandfather of Wythe and Vol Walker of this place, to keep books
for him. The only way that William could keep account of articles which
he sold was to draw a picture of them. This crude manner of keeping
account of articles sold led to many laughable incidents, one of which
Wythe Walker recalls as related to him by his grand-father.
A man came in to settle up his bill.
"You owe me $3 for that cheese
you bought," announced William, after consulting the drawings.
"Hell, I ain't bought a dimes worth
of cheese from you, William, I got a
grindstone from you!"
"That's right, that's right," said William. "I put a circle inside
instead of a "I."