Page12                                            FAYETTEVILLE (ARK.) DEMOCRAT                         Tuesday, July 3,  1928


Centennial Sidelights By Journalism Students


   County Has Nine
       Colleges Before
             State University

         By Corinne Hodges
   Early settlers in this county brought with them the desire for higher educa-tion. For a long time, however, there were private schools only. There was no money to maintain public schools, and the country was sparsely settled. Teachers took "scholars" for $1 a month, and boarded "around" with patrons. Often they paid in meat, pork, sugar coffee, or other produce.
   Prior to the Civil War there were
no high schools or universities, but
nine colleges were chartered in Wash-
ington county during that time, the first being the Fayetteville Female Semi-
nary, chartered October 27, 1836.
   Two colleges were founded in the
county in 1852; Arkansas College at
Fayetteville was granted a charter on
December 14, and Cane Hill College on the following day. The former college functioned for ten years, until its buildings were burned during the Civil War.
   By the Land Grant act the state
was allowed land for an Agricultural
and Mechanical school. Fayetteville,
with the assistance of Washington
county, made the highest bid for the
University, and the board of direct-
ors decided that it should be perman-ently located here.
   It was necessary, however, to open
the University within a certain time
in order to obtain the Land Grant
from the government. The committee found no buildings on the ground
selected for the University site suit-able for school buildings. Accordingly, they remodeled a six-room residence, and rented a two-story frame building for temporary use. Arkansas Industrial University, as it was then called, open-ed in 1872.
   The present Main hall at the Uni-
versity of Arkansas, a four-story structure, was erected in the same
year, modeled after the University of Illinois, after a committee had been sent to that school to investigate con-ditions there.
   Brick for the construction was ob-
tained by digging out clay from back
back of where the building now stands, and baking it into bricks with fuel cut from forests around the grou- nds. The stone for the foundation was quarried from the campus, while the white trim is stone hauled in from Mt. Comfort. The four tall white pillars, which give the entrance a distictive ap-
pearance, were brought from Brush
creek. It took several weeks to trans-
port them here, as the roads were almost impassable and White river had to be forded twice.
   Sixty six years ago Senator R. J.
Wilson of Fayetteville, who has served
in the state legislature longer than any other man, plowed the land on which the Main building now stands. Ten years later he cast his first vote to establish the University at Fayetteville. In 1901 he took part in the transaction which cleared the debt of $462,000 which the city of Fayetteville and Washington county incurred to obtain the University.

   Not "Lovely" Now
            But Lovely Still
      By Angie Madge Kieth

   "Washington county was once
Lovely county, it is now, for that
matter," smilingly said Bob Wilson,
resident of Fayetteville for 77 years,
as he sat rocking in a chair on the ver-
andah of his Colonial home.
   A large tract of land extending to
Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, was bought
from the Indians by John and William Lovely, early in 1800. This became known as the Lovely purchase and later as Lovely county. In 1826, when squatters could settle the land here, a small log cabin court house, clerk's office, jail, store, and several cabins were built near the spot where the court house now stands. This was known, in the Virginia style, as Wash-ington Court House, the name of the entire settlement.
   Since another town was already
called Washington, Arkansas, the
postmaster general asked that the
name be changed for a great deal of
confusion was caused over the mail.
Three or four men, who had the title
to this land, including Bob Wilson's
father, had been residents of Fayette-
ville, Tennessee. Thus they agreed to
name this new town after their home and it was changed to Fayetteville, Arkansas.
   Several years later, the large tract
of land known as Lovely county or
Lovely purchase was cut into two
parts, one in Oklahoma and the other
now known as Washington county.


Articles are continued on page12a

       Aged "Pickaninny Wedding Gift"


           By Nelda Hickman
   Seventy years ago a Fayetteville bride counted among her wedding gifts a very small and very happy pickaninny who answered to the  name of Adeline. Today, still happy, her mind keenly alert, Adeline serves the granddaughter of that same bride. Her memory goes back to
the turbulent days of the Civil War. She laughs heartily as she recalls one partic-ular incident: A battle was being fought not more than a city block from her home. For safety, she, still a small child, and the little daughter of her mistress were placed in wash tubs in a water-filled cellar. While the battle raged over the hill, the two children bobbled happily
about on their private ocean.
   And then Adeline remembers the stu-
dents who came to the University of Arkansas when it was a very young and very small institution. She remembers the pranks they played and how they looked on drill days when they donned their blue uniforms with the long frock-tail coats.
   "Of course the boys played pranks"
said Adeline. "They were just as lively in those days as they are now. And they didn't think of things like having freshmen wear green caps.


      Slave Rebellion
           Follows Attempt
               At Profit Sharing

           By Stephen A. Cisler
The first attempt at profit-sharing for employees in Washington county resul-
ted in a slave uprising, says Mrs. Nora Carlisle of Fayetteville, who relates the story of the rebellion in the spring of 1857 that culminated in the murder of her great-grandfather, James Boone, and a stirring day preceding the lynching
of the negroes.
   The first brick house in the valley
where the town of Elkins now is sit-
uated was the home of James Boone.
A widower, with his three sons grown
up and gone away, Boone owned a
farm extending through the entire valley which required a large number of negro slaves. Being already wealthy and de- siring to better the condition of his slaves, Boone offered to give them all the proceeds of the farm and retain only the power of management.
   In organizing his farm anew, he
appointed one of his most trusted re-
tainers as an overseer and gave the
negro a horse on which to make the
rounds of the fields. It is this appoint-ment, Mrs. Carlisle believes, that caused jealousy to spring up among the other hands who believed that the overseer was obtaining more than his share of the earnings.
   Early one morning the negro house-
keeper, going to awaken her her master, found him stretched unconscious near the door of his room.
   On the floor outside the door were
three hickory clubs with which Boone
had been beaten during the night. He lived 'till the afternoon of the next day but never regained consciousness.
   A son residing at Neosho, Mo., was
sent for through a slave messenger on horseback. While this slave was gone, a suspicion arose that he might have had a hand in the crime and so another slave was dispatched to have him arrested. The trailing slave met the suspect and the son, who were returning to the Ozarks. On arrival at the homestead the suspect was placed along with the other two ringleaders in a small room at the top of the house, and the door guarded day and night.
   The jailors declared one evening that, "we'll just go away and let them starve," and then imitated departing footsteps but remained quietly outside. During the night the negroes became restless and talked of the crime. The listeners ob- tained sufficient evidence from the conversation to satisfy themselves that the slaves were guilty and later took
them to the jail at Fayetteville.
   Fayetteville the next day was the  scene of a milling mob which congre-gated on the dirt streets and clustered in little knots about the jail steps. As the afternoon passed, speeches became more fiery and the climax was reached when on of the Boones jumped on the courthouse steps and shouted: "Procrastination is the thief of time; I say hang them now!" The willing mob swar- med through the jail and brought the negroes out. One of them was returned
to his cell because he was the property of a neighbor of the murdered man.
   Down to the old Governor Yell man-
sion at the end of sough College avenue the party took its was, and there to one of the big trees which are still standing, the two Boone slaves were hanged for their part in the murder. The Williams negro was later tried and hanged.

  Recalls Student Duel and


But they did dye one boy's hair a
bright red."
   Snipe hunting was extremely popular in the early days, and many a freshman was left "holding the sack" for hours.
   Once two students had a duel. The
quarrel was trivial, but since one boy
was much larger than the other, they
could not settle it by a first-fight. So the little fellow challenged the big one to a duel. Seconds were chosen, and a spot on Mount Nord selected for the event. The hour arrived and with it the two students and their seconds. They took their distance and, at a signal, fired. The first shots hit neither combatant.
They fired again with the same results. And then they discovered that the guns were loaded with blank cartridges! Whereupon they both laughed, shook hands, and went home.
   Because the president of the Univer-
sity had displeased them, some stu-dents took away the foot bridge across a small creek which ran through pres-ent-day Shulertown. Absorbed in deep thought, "prexy" stepped where the bridge should have been and landed where Adeline says he had no business!


    Fifty Cents Buys
            Local Town Square
                 From "Uncle Sam"

               By Johnny Erp
Fifty cents was the purchase price
of land here which was formerly used as the "happy hunting ground" for Indians less than a century ago.Today, that same land, the village square, is the "happy hunting grounds" for metropol-itan house-wives who seek anything from rolling pins to electric washing machines.
   Long before Fayetteville was destin-ed to become the "Athens of the Ozarks," Redskins, the first known settlers here, stalked about the thickly wooded section before it took on the semblance of civilization. Today, those same paths which have been paved over, are trodden by University of Arkansas students, who have flocked here from the four directions to get their higher learning in the Ozark hills.
   Fayetteville, unlike most small cities, does not have the usual courthouse site in the center of the block but instead has its postoffice located there. Origin-ally, the halls of justice for Washington county were there, but as time decayed the ram-shackle building, the site was
changed. In 1907, Washington coun-
ty deeded this plot of land back to the United States government for the lump sum of half-a-dollar.
   Today the rank and file, the farmer and the shop-keeper, the merchant and the inn-keeper, the proletariat and the plebian rub elbows together on a com- mon ground.
   Business houses have been erected
on all sides; Wallace Brothers were
said to have been the pioneer settlers there. Theirs was a combination store catering mostly to the farmers, who flocked in from the western part of the county.
   It is estimated by W. S. Campbell,
author of "100 Years of Fayetteville," a book which is to be released for the Centennial celebration, that approx-imately 40 people have been killed within the four sides of this memorable grounds during the last half century.
   Formerly where hitching posts and
watering troughs stood now stand
blaring red and white barber poles,
modern electric lights and "no parking" signs.

    Girl Student Tells
              of Pranks of 1882
         By Mary Shauman

Mrs. F. E. Martin was the second
woman to enroll in the Arkansas In-
dustrial University. I found her in a little old house on Leverett street living quite alone--save, of course, for her mem-ories. The house, a design of bygone years, is set quite back from the busy street as if avoiding the rush and clam-or.
   Mrs. Martin entered the University in 1882, while G. P. Gates was president. There were no freshmen but quite a large number of Indians. Dances were held once a week in the long hall of the main building, then frame. They were most pointedly chaperoned and spon-sored by the faculty.
   With the succession of Bishop as
president a new rule was made, and
Mrs. Martin smiled at the recollection. All men had to be in the dormitory by a certain hour. But it seems this rule was not so rigorously kept and so to catch the offenders President Bishop hid under a bridge in Shuler town. As the culprits came along he caught the tail of the coat of one, only to find himself
hurled from the bridge, the ineffective coat tail in his hand.

      Looking Back 100 Years
           By Wendell Polk

   George McGarrah moved to this
state and pitched his tent. There were three sons accompanying him, James, John, and William.
   One of the brothers, known about the country as "Pete," opened a trading store.
   Creation of Washington county by the action of territorial legislature. The county originally included almost three times as much land as it does at pres- sent.
   Treaty with the Cherokee Indians whereby they were to move further west and allow the whites to settle in this section of the country.
   The first court was held in 1829
at the McGarrah home.
   The first postoffice was founded
here August 1829, but there were
really no post roads as yet. Figures for the receipts of the first year are not available but in the second year the total was $12.18. Last year the receipts amounted to $66,219.83.
   Frank Pierce, sighting a herd of buffalo, fired upon them and gave him- self away to a band of Indians. The Indians pursued him but he eluded them and camped on West Fork. He liked the country and settled here.
   Election of 1828 in which Jackson
triumphed over Adams.
   Origin of Nullification by South Car-
olina in the fight over the tariff is 1828.
   The beginning of the quarrel over state's rights which was an issue in the election of 1828.


   College Students
          Name Shulertown
               For "Soda-Jerker"

           By Grace Blakemore
The personality of a vivacious young drug store clerk, Fred Shuler was the dynamic force which caused the grow-th and prosperity of the section of Fay-etteville now popularly known as Shulertown. The expression  "Come, let's go see Shuler," so well known to University of Arkansas students of 30 years ago, has been replaced by Let's go down to Shulertown," probably the most used sentence on the University Campus today.
   Forty-seven years ago when the
campus of the state university was
enclosed by a rail fence and there
were no paved streets nor sidewalks
in the city, a general merchandise
store was opened on Dickson street
by A. B. Lewis. This was the first
business house in what is now known
as Shulertown. As the enrollment  of the university increased and after the men's dormitory had been built, sever-
al more small business houses were constructed in this section of town.
   One of these houses was a drug
store owned by A. C. McAdams who
now owns one of the best drug stores
in the city. This store was located
where Bates Brothers' grocery store
now stands. In 1898 Mr. McAdams'
business had so grown that he employ-
ed Fred Shuler as clerk and manager. Shuler soon became a favorite with the university students and, although he has now been away from Fayetteville for more than 18 years, the business dis-trict on Dickson street is still known as Shulertown.
   "Shuler" is plainly and outgrowth of the university. It now means more than a purchasing center for students. It means "Shulertown--where good fellows get together."

      They look Alike
             But Taste Different

             By Wendell Polk
It was away back about 1828 that
William and John McGarrah settled
at what was to become Fayetteville
and William opened the first store
that was ever opened here. It was
a crude log building but it supplied
the needs of the sparsely settled
   William could neither read nor write
but he wanted to do a credit business
and so he employed Dave Walker,
who was later to become judge of the state supreme court, and who also was the grandfather of Wythe and Vol Walker of this place, to keep books for him. The only way that William could keep account of articles which he sold was to draw a picture of them. This crude manner of keeping account of articles sold led to many laughable incidents, one of which Wythe Walker recalls as related to him by his grand-father.
A man came in to settle up his bill.
   "You owe me $3 for that cheese
you bought," announced William, after consulting the drawings.
   "Hell, I ain't bought a dimes worth
of cheese from you, William, I got a
grindstone from you!"
   "That's right, that's right," said William. "I put a circle inside instead of a "I."


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